Aliyah עליה. Lit., the act of moving or being raised upwards, often used to mean immigration to Israel, considered a spiritual / existential "moving upwards."
Beit Knesset בית כנסת Lit., "house of gathering," i.e. synagogue (a.k.a. "shul" in Yiddish).
Hagim חגים (sing: hag חג). Lit, holidays, but often referring to the set of holidays -- Rosh haShana, Yom Kippur, Sukkot, and Simhat Torah -- that fall during the autumn month of Tishrei.
Hakafot הקפות (See Simhat Torah).
Halacha הלכה Jewish law, the collection of rules and standards concerning how to live one's life according to Rabbinic standards.
Haredi חרדי Us. translated "ultra-Orthodox," and characterized by a very strict, conservative interpretation of Jewish law, us. under the guidance of a particular Rabbi.
Havdalah הבדלה. Lit. separation, spec. the short ritual conducted after dark on Saturday night, which marks the end of Shabbat and the beginning of the new week.
Hesed חסד. Kindness, piety, a righteous action or behavior or attitude. Not necessarily a mitzvah, per se, but definitely a worthy trait or behavior.
Klal Yisrael כלל ישראל. Lit, the whole of Israel, i.e. the Jewish community as a whole (if there is such a thing...)
Makolet מכולת. The local, corner mini-market that sells anything from fresh produce and dairy products, to school supplies and popsicles. From the word kol, כל, "all" or "everything."
Minyan מנין A quarum of ten men, age 13+, who gather for prayers, us. three times a day.
Mitzvot מצוות (sing: mitzvah מצוה). The 613 ritual and societal obligations G-d, and then the early Rabbis, established for the Jewish people. There are positive ("Thou shalt...") and negative ("Thou shalt not...") mitzvot covering every aspect of life.
Moshav מושב A jointly-owned, agriculture-based Israeli community. We live on Moshav land but do not hold ownership of Moshav property.
Rabbanit רבנית (Yiddish: Rebbitzin): 1. The wife of a rabbi. 2. A female, married woman who is considered very learned, knowledgeable and inspirational within her community.
Rebbe (Yiddish): An especially learned rabbi, us. the leader of a community or teacher of boys in a religious school.
Shabbat שבת (Yiddish / Askenazi pronunciation: Shabbes). The Jewish Sabbath. Begins 18 minutes before sundown Friday evening, ends 25 hours later, and involves a myriad of mitzvot. See the Chabad site for more.
Shiva שבעה Lit. "seven," spec. the seven days of Jewish mourning observed by immediate family members of the deceased. See Patti's blog for a simple yet thorough explanation, the Aish haTorah site for a longer one.
Shomrei Shabbat שומרי שבת (sing: Shomer/et Shabbat שומר/ת שבת). Sabbath observer; namely, a Jewish person who keeps the Sabbath according to traditional Rabbinic law.
Simhat Torah שמחת תורה. Lit. A celebration of Torah, following the High Holidays. On this festival we complete our yearly cycle reading the Five Books of Moses and return to the beginning.
Tefilla תפילה (pl: tefilot תפילות). Prayer, both formal / standardized and informal.
Tush"ba תושב"ע. Abbrev. for Torah sh'Ba'al Peh, aka the Oral Law, consisting of the Mishna and Gemarra, also known as Talmud.
Tzniut צניעות "Modesty," primarily referring to a woman's standards of dress and/or behavior.